Poor grammar, as well as poor spelling and punctuation, can create intelligibility issues. Even if errors don’t create comprehension problems, if they seem to dominate your writing, it will be considered unprofessional or sloppy and will not be successful.

Guide to Grammar and Writing – Index This is a very comprehensive site with information on many aspects of writing. However, it’s most useful for specific problems with grammar, mechanics, spelling, etc. Find the problem you need to work on and click on it. (Capital Community College Foundation)

Grammar – Purdue Online paperhelp review university essay review http://augoodessay.com/online-paper-writing-service/ research paper example review medical school essays review Writing Lab (OWL) This OWL guide will help you use correct grammar in your writing. (Purdue University)

Punctuation – Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) This OWL guide will help you to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation. (Purdue University)

Paragraphs are the building blocks of academic writing. Even if you have excellent ideas and have thoroughly researched your topic, you need to present them in well-sequenced, focused paragraphs to be a successful academic writer.

Paragraphs and Topic Sentences

This short film explains the way a paragraph is organized in academic English. (Luke Bailey, lecturer in English, Karlstad University)

Helpsheet PARAGRAPHS (The University of Melbourne 2010) This reviews the basics of good paragraph writing. Pages 2-4 review their fundamental structure. Pages 5-9 review other important features including layout and linking ideas.

Clearer Writing – Paragraph Structure This is an extremely thorough introduction to writing focused, well-organized paragraphs. You can’t do this in five minutes, but if you are having problems with this, it will be well-worth your time to do the course. It is divided into sub-sections for specific issues. (The University of Sydney)

Clarity and cohesion are crucial for successful writing. Your reader must be able to follow the progression of your ideas clearly and understand how they connect or link to each other (cohesion). You will find discussions of clarity and cohesion in many of the other resource links as well, which is an indication of their importance. The following foreground some specific aspects.

Connecting Ideas in Writing (The University of Melbourne) This provides a good overview of how to connect ideas at the sentence and paragraph level in academic writing

Using Old/New Information Order in a Sentence (UNSW Australia) This reviews the very common technique of placing old (known or less important) information at the beginning of a sentence and new (more important or unknown information) at the end as a way of making your ideas clear to your reader.

Creating Links between Paragraphs

Paragraphs do not function in isolation. Just as all the sentences within a paragraph fit together to form one unit of thought, your paragraphs should also fit together. The same techniques that you use to create cohesion within a paragraph are often used to create links between them.

Transitions (Monmouth University) Gives examples of using both signal phrases and key word repetition to link paragraphs.

Writing Transitions (Purdue University) Gives examples of using old/new information order to create coherence between paragraphs.

Pronoun Reference and Antecedent Agreement

In formal writing, pronouns like he, she, they, and it need to have a clear antecedent. This is very different from informal writing or conversation. Not using pronouns clearly can not only create comprehension problems, but is also unacceptable in formal writing.

Williams, Shreese. Resources for Pronoun Reference & Antecedent Agreement This provides a thorough review of how to use pronouns correctly and unambiguously.

Using Pronouns Clearly (Purdue University)

Pronouns and Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement (Capital Community College)

Author: Marianne Svernström The page was updated on 2015-10-28 13:25

Complete Guides in Academic Writing

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) This is a comprehensive site which is very useful for specific issues. The link takes you to the index, which makes it easy to find the specific aspect you want information on. (Purdue University)

Using English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for Students in Higher Education A very complete course. This one was specifically designed with non-native English speakers in mind. It comprises various units on academic writing. (Andy Gillet, UEfAP Using English for Academic Purposes)

No matter how you learned in your first language to organize a paper, construct an argument, use your scholarly vocabulary, or consider your reader’s expectations, English does it differently.”

(from Getting Published in International Journals )

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